MoonDB 2.0: an updated database of extreme multifunctional and moonlighting proteins


  • Ribeiro Diogo
  • Briere Galadriel
  • Bely Benoit
  • Spinelli Lionel
  • Brun Christine


  • UniProt Knowl-edgebase UniProtKB
  • MoonDB 20

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MoonDB 2.0 ( is a database of predicted and manually curated extreme multifunctional (EMF) and moonlighting proteins, i.e. proteins that perform multiple unrelated functions. We have previously shown that such proteins can be predicted through the analysis of their molecular interaction subnetworks, their functional annotations and their association to distinct groups of proteins that are involved in unrelated functions. In MoonDB 2.0, we updated the set of human EMF proteins (238 proteins), using the latest functional annotations and protein-protein interaction networks. Furthermore, for the first time, we applied our method to four additional model organisms-mouse, fly, worm and yeast-and identified 54 novel EMF proteins in these species. In addition to novel predictions , this update contains 63 human and yeast proteins that were manually curated from literature, including descriptions of moonlighting functions and associated references. Importantly, MoonDB's interface was fully redesigned and improved, and its entries are now cross-referenced in the UniProt Knowl-edgebase (UniProtKB). MoonDB will be updated once a year with the novel EMF candidates calculated from the latest available protein interactions and functional annotations.

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